What is ROM and how does it work?

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Those of you who use a smartphone or computer must be wondering what is ROM? Do not understand the meaning of ROM here as you have understood. But whenever you buy a mobile, then it definitely comes in ROM and computer too. 

So you definitely want to know whether its size should be less or more on mobile. When you buy a mobile then you will see that the internal memory is 32GB but it is 29 GB or less than that, then why would you get the answer in this article.

ROMs are not of one kind, they change from day to day according to technology. So let’s learn something new, what is ROM and how many types are there.

What is ROM and how does it work?
What is ROM and how does it work?


What is ROM?

ROM is a type of memory, which I told you in the previous article, it is only part of the primary memory of the computer. So a little more reminder that there are two types of memory in a computer, Primary and Secondary, Primary Memory are of two types, one is RAM and the other is ROM. 

Its full name is Read-Only Memory by its name, you must be aware that we can read this memory simply. There is a fixed program in it (or Permanent Memory can say), we cannot change this program easily, as the correct answer is when you buy a computer there is already a BIOS program in it.

It helps to turn on the system and with this, it links the BOIS Computer and Operating System.

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So this BIOS already resides in the new computer and the memory in which it resides in the name of the ROM and an example is the FIRMWARE Software program which is attached to the hardware. And the program that is in Firmware also stays in a Rom Chip. 

This memory is also called Non-Volatile Memory. This memory is created only when computers are created. ROMs are not just used in computers or mobiles, we can use them in some other electronic devices as well.

Such as WASHING Machine, Microwave Oven, TV, AC, Lift Viagra. So due to changing technology, ROMs also have different types. We will talk about this further in Types of ROM.

ROM features


Let us now consider the features of ROM. 
• ROM is a permanent memory or permanent memory. 
• It stores all the basic Functionality instructions of the computer. 
• ROMs are readable only. Meaning that only the information in it can be read. 
• In terms of price, ROMs are cheaper than RAM. 
• ROM uses very little energy, while they are very reliable.

What are the types of ROM?


There are some Sabbaths in this article like Data, Instruction, Program all means one, do not be confused and one term is “Programmed“. This means that these are very many commands that do a task like software does.

In the same way, here on Computer, a software program is done, which is named Firmware which resides in ROM. By the way, there are 4 types of ROM which are given below and their information is also there.

  1. MROM (Masked Read Only Memory)
  2. PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)
  3. EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)
  4. EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)

1.Masked Read-Only Memory

This is the first ROM, it is not used at all in today’s world. This is Read-Only Memory Hard Wired Devices. In which there was a lot of pre-programmed data and Instruction Store. Such memory used to be quite expensive. At that time, MROM will not be available anywhere.

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2.Programmable Read-Only Memory

This is such a Read-Only Memory, which we can change only once. Changing here means putting some new programs in PROM and an update is also said. Once updated, no one can update it again. 

User Blank PROM is purchased and then the person who wants to put Instruction in it can put (Instruction means some commands that do some work). There are small fuses in this memory, in which Instruction is inserted through programming. Once it is programmed, you cannot erase it again.

3.Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory


There is another type of this ROM, its specialty is that we can also Erase it and can also be programmed again. The way to erase this memory is quite different, in which you pass this memory up to 40 Minute with Ultra Violet Light, then it is empty. 

We know in a little more detail, “EPROM Eraser” is also used to achieve this work. While doing Programming, (Programming means updating or inserting some new program) it puts more Charge inside it, which is kept for more than 10 years because there is no way for Charge to get out. Therefore, it remains inside that memory. 

So to erase this charge (instruction), Ultra Violet Light is passed through Quartz Crystal Window (lid). With the effect of this light, all the Charge Erase are more. Here was some information about Erasable and Programmable ROM.


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4.Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory


Due to the change of technology, Read-Only Memory also needed to be changed, again and again, that is why this memory was used. Its specialty is that we can Erase and programmed it 10 thousand times and within just 4 to 10 Millisecond we can also Erase and Programmed it. 

We can choose any area of memory in it and we can Erase and Programmed the equivalent. We don’t have to exhaust the whole Chip. Because of this Advantage, it is an EEPROM seat but is slow. So till now, you know what ROM is (what is ROM) and types of ROM now know about its benefits.

How does ROM work?


Whenever we switch on the computer, there is not much difference between your computer and a rock. Meaning both of them to have the same computing power. Therefore, there is something that should be inside your computer that tells him that other hardware like keyboard, mouse, disk drive are all attached to it. 


This is generically called “BIOS” (Basic Input Output System). Even though initially your computer is not so smart, but these BIOS chips which are in the computer help the computer to access all the startup routines that are stored in a disk drive, and that includes RAM Use for all types of computations. 


These BIOS are stored on a ROM chip, otherwise, the computer will know how to do it with other hardware associated. Like RAM, ROM chips also have grids of columns and rows. But where these columns and rows intersect, they are fundamentally different in these ROM chips compared to RAM chips. 


Where RAM uses transistors to turn a capacitor on or off, to access it in the intersection, while ROM diode is used to connect these lines if they have a value of 1. The same if their value The lines are not connected at all if they are 0. 

ROM chip function

For the ROM chip to function correctly, it is very important that its programming be completely perfect and it is also important to have complete data with it when the chip is being created. 


This is because you cannot reprogram or rewrite a standard ROM chip again. If something goes wrong or you have to update some data, then you have to change the ROM or make a new one. Therefore, it is very difficult to create the original template of ROM Chip, while a lot of trial and error is done in it.

Advantages Of ROM


So now you know, what are the benefits of ROM, then it would be understandable to understand all the above information.

  • Its inclination is Non-Volatile, which keeps the program forever. 
  • Its data does not change automatically, only the data changes by changing it. 
  • It is cheaper than RAM. Are more reliable than RAM. 
  • Because the data remains in RAM as long as the power supply remains. 
  • It is steady and there is no compelling reason to invigorate it over and over. 
  • There is a lot of thinking and putting data in it, which we cannot change again and again.


This was some information about Advantages of ROM

read – What are the types of computers?

conclusion

By the way, if you are a student then this information will be more useful for you. If you want to know about RAM, then you can also read my other article.

There are some terms in it, which would be smiling to understand if you are nontechnical, but still, if you want to ask any question, then please write in the comment box below and subscribe to our blog because we give knowledge in simple language.

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