Do you know about the type of computer? All of you must have used computers because nowadays it is readily available in all places whether they are schools or offices. At the same time, all of you must have definitely noticed that one computer does not have the same capacity to come and work. Where some computers are very small, some are large in size. Some work very fast, some work very slowly. Now the question arises whether all these computers are of one type or they are different from each other.
Just to answer this question, in today’s article, in different types of computers, today I am going to provide information to you on this subject. Today, in this article, we will learn about all types of computers and also know how to divide them according to their function, purpose, and size. Hopefully, by the end of this article, you will definitely get answers to your questions. Then without delay, let’s start with the type of personal computer.
what is Computer?
A computer is a machine that has been programmed to do a lot of tasks for us. It takes our commands according to the input, processes it and in the end provides our results according to the output.
It also has some important characteristics such as
1. It reacts to a particular arrangement of guidelines in a well-characterized way.
2. It executes a prerecorded rundown of guidelines (called program).
3. It can store and retrieve large amounts of data with great ease.
Apart from this, computers are capable of performing many complex and repetitive procedures quickly, precisely and reliably.
Talking about modern computers, then they are electronic and digital. The actual machinery (wires, transistors, and circuits) in it is called hardware; Whereas instructions and data are called software.
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All general-purpose computers include the following hardware components,
1. The central processing unit (CPU): This is the heart of the computer, a component that actually executes instructions that are organized into programs. (“Software”) and who instructs the computer what to do.
2. Memory (fast, expensive, short-term memory): These enable the computer to store things, even if temporarily correct such as data, programs, and intermediate results.
3. Mass Storage Device (slower, cheaper, longer-term memory): This allows a computer to sustain a large amount of data and programs in between jobs. Common mass storage devices are major in disk drives and tape drives.
4. Input Device: This is the function of an input device to enter data and instructions into the computer. The keyboard and mouse are the main ones.
5. Output Device: Output device is used to show final results to users. There are display screens, a printer in it.
Types of Computer
What are the types of computers? You will probably want to know about the type of computer. By the way, there are many types of computers, but to understand them easily, they are divided into different categories. Which will make it easier for anyone to understand them.
What are the types of computers?
They are mainly divided into three different grounds.
1. Based on Mechanism
2. Based on Purpose
3. Based on Size
Types of Computers based on Mechanism
Based on the methodology, they are classified into three parts Analog, Digital, and Hybrid. About which we are you will learn one.
1. Analog Computers
Analog Computer is said to be those computers which use an analog signal to display information. Analog computers are used to process analog data. These analog data are of continuous nature, which is not discrete or separate.
Temperature, pressure, speed weight, voltage, depth, etc. are main in these data. In these, information which is of continuous form is displayed in the shape of curves.
They are used to measure continuous physical quantity such as current flow, temperature, blood pressure, heartbeats. These quantities are continuous and values of an infinite variety are found in them.
It measures continuous changes in some physical quantities such as Speedometer is used to measure the speed of the car, Thermometer is used to measure the change of temperature, while the Weighing Machine is used to measure the weight.
It happens for These computers are ideal for situations where data is accepted directly from the measuring instrument and which does not require any kind of conversion into numbers or codes.
Analog computers were the first computers that were developed and celebrated the basis of modern digital computer developments.
What are the applications of Analog Computers?
Analog computers are mostly used in some specialized engineering and scientific applications to calculate and measure analog quantities.
They are also used for process control, such as in oil refinery where both flow and temperature measurements are important.
They are utilized for paper making just as in the substance business.
Analog computers do not require any kind of storage capacity as they measure and measure quantities in a single operation.
The output from an analog computer is often in the form of readings such as a series of dials (of a car in a speedometer) or in a strip chart in the form of a graph.
2. Digital Computers
A Digital Computer, as its name suggests, suggests that they work with digits that represent numerals, letters or any other special symbols.
Digital computers operate on the basis of inputs which are ON-OFF type and their output is also in the form of ON-OFF signal. Normally, ON is represented by a 1 and OFF is represented by a 0.
So here we can say that digital computers process information based on the presence or absence of an electrical signal or on binary 1 or 0.
A digital computer is also used to process numeric as well as non-numeric data. It can also perform many arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and also logical operations.
Most of the computers which are available in the present time are all digital computers. Basic instances of Digital Computers are bookkeeping machines and number crunchers.
If we talk about results then digital computers provide more accurate results than analog computers.
Analog computers are much faster than digital. Analog computers do not have memory, whereas digital computers have to store information. We can say that digital computers count, while analog computers are used to measure.
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They display computer information based on text, graphics, and pictures.
3. Hybrid Computers
A crossbreed PC is really a blend of computerized and simple PCs. In this, the best features of both types of computers are combined together. Which are the speed of Analog Computer and the memory and accuracy of Digital Computer?
Hybrid computers are used in all those specialized applications where both types of data need to be processed. This causes the client to process the two sorts of information (persistent and discrete).
For example, a petrol pump has a processor that converts fuel flow measurements into quantity and price values.
In a medical clinic Intensive Care Unit (ICU), a simple gadget is utilized to quantify the patient’s pulse and temperature, which is then changed over and showed as digits. Half and half PCs are likewise utilized in logical counts, in guard and radar frameworks.
It is a computer that can understand binary as well as an analog signal. Therefore Speed is neither more than analog computers nor less than digital computers.
Types of computers based on Purpose
Computers are categorized into two parts based on purpose, based on Special Purpose and General Purpose.
1. General Purpose Computers
In recent times, the computer which has the most they are called General-Purpose computers – they are built to do many varieties of processing jobs.
You can complete many tasks only by using a general-purpose computer and some different software, including writing and editing (word processing), manipulating the facts in the database, tracking manufacturing inventory, making scientific calculations. For, or to maintain the security system of an organization, they are used in many such works.
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This general-purpose computer can do so many varieties of operations because it can easily store and execute different programs in its internal storage.
2. Special Purpose Computers
As the name itself suggests, a Special-Purpose Computer is designed to perform a specific type of task and most of the time they are used only to solve a particular problem. Hence they are also called Dedicated Computers. Because they are meant to perform a single task over and over again.
Such a computer system is used in graphic-intensive video games, traffic lights control system, a navigational system of an aircraft, weather forecasting, satellite launch/tracking, oil exploration, and automotive industries, in a digital watch to take care of time, or robot helicopter.
It is used exclusively. In this special purpose computer, you will get to see many of the same features which are on a general-purpose computer.
In this, a special function is given more attention. The instructions that control it are directly built into the computer so that it becomes more efficient and is also capable of very effective operation.
Since it is made to do the same work, so that it gets the support of all the other things, to do the same work in a practical manner.
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It’s one big drawback is that it has no versatility in it. Which means that it cannot be used in any other operations.
types of computers based on Size
Based on the size, we can divide the computer into the following categories, the information of which you will get to read in the following article –
1. Super Computer
These computers are multi-user, multiprocessor large computers that have very high efficiency as well as storing capacity.
These supercomputers can solve very difficult and complex problems within a few nanoseconds. Many RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processors would have been used to make this.
Supercomputers are the fastest and most valuable computers. These computers are used to solve complex science and engineering problems.
Supercomputers use parallel processing to make the most of its processing so that many CPUs are used at the same time. A typical supercomputer performs about ten trillion individual calculations in a second.
What are Supercomputer’s applications?
(i) They are used to forecast weather and global climates.
(ii) They are used in military research and defense systems.
(iii) They are used in designing automobiles, aircraft, and spacecraft.
(iv) Simultaneously sensitive intelligence consists in encrypting and decoding information.
(v) They are used in seismography, plasma, and nuclear research.
(vi) Protein folding analysis
(vii) DNA structure and gene engineering.
(viii) Digital film rendering
C-DAC (Center for Development of Advanced Computer) developed the Super Computer of PARAM series in India.
ANURAG is also a Super Computer in India. Mr. Seymour Cray is the only person who developed the world’s first supercomputer, which was named Cray-1 in 1976.
2. Mainframe Computer
Mainframe (this means, “big iron”) computers which are very large in appearance like iron building. They are very much like a supercomputer, the main difference between the two is that a supercomputer uses all its raw power, even for just a few tasks, while a mainframe uses many tasks. It is used to do the same time.
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For the idea of this sort, centralized computers are regularly utilized in enormous associations in mass information preparing, for example, registration, industry and buyer measurements, undertaking asset arranging, and exchange handling.
At the same time, due to it being a more powerful multi-user computer, they are used in large business organizations, for examinations in the examination department, for processing such data in industries and defense which are very complex. They can easily process many requests very easily. This happens to process data processing of many CPUs.
More than 100 users can use mainframe computers at one time. Because it works based on the time-sharing mode. Its assertion length is from 48 bits to 64 bits.
IBM constructed the principal Mainframe Computer, System/360, in 1964.
Different instances of IBM will be: IBM S/390, IBM S/709, ICL 39, CDC 6600
Applications of Mainframe Computer are: –
(i) Government and civilian
(ii) Credit card processing
(V) Business data processing in a large organization
(vi) Air traffic control system
(vii) Industrial design to do
3. Mini Computer
Minicomputers are larger and more powerful than most microcomputers, while smaller and less powerful than most mainframe computer systems.
While microcomputer systems of high-end models (called super micros) are more powerful than some midrange computers, midrange systems (supermini) of high-end models are more powerful than mainframe computers of some smaller models.
It is also a multi-user computer that supports a lot of people working together. These are more valuable than a microcomputer. They are used more in university, big business organizations to process complex data.
It is also used in scientific research, instrumentation system, engineering analysis, industrial process monitoring, and control.
Examples of Mini Computers are: PDP-11, VAX
4. Micro Computer
Micro Computer is also called a personal computer because it is a computer designed to do the work of a user at the same time.
This term microcomputer is related to a term microprocessor that is used to do certain tasks with a personal computer such as to process data and also instruction codes.
This is an extremely normal sort of PC to utilize.
Desktop computers are not designed to be mobile. They can be taken from one place to another but very rarely and where there is a correct power supply. It is a fixed computer.
The first personal computer – Apple-1 was built in 1976, it was designed by Apple computer. In 1981, IBM also announced its IBM 5150 PC.
Now the computers which are more used are all microcomputer only. They are also called Home PC or Personal computer (PC) as they are used by a single user. This computer supports many higher-level languages, multimedia, graphics, 3D graphics, and games.
These are more popular among students, professionals because of their small size, low price, and low maintenance cost. At the same time, it is equally easy to operate them.
Due to these Micro PCs, the Internet became so popular in a very short time, and they are available for all income groups.
5. Laptop Computers
These laptops or handheld computers are not a replacement for desktop computers. While desktop computers are used to perform major processing functions, these laptops are also used in slightly less complex tasks.
These laptop computers are very small, portable, less power consuming, plus they are equipped with all modern facilities which are in a modern PC.
These computers are fully powered by the battery. At the same time, their storage capacity is less than that of personal computers. But they can be taken anytime and anywhere and can also be used together.
The first thought of a laptop computer was Alan Kay, who used to work at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center at that time in 1970 and he named it notebook. But the first laptop was designed by William Moggridge in 1979, who used to work in Grid System Crops.
In 1983, Gavilan produced a laptop computer with 64 Kilobyte memory, it also had MS-DOS operating system, a touchpad mouse, portable printer which weighed around 9Ib.
6. PALMTOP Computer
As people came to know about the computer, they started using it more and more. Due to which scientists have to search for such new computers so that people’s needs can be easily fulfilled.
That’s why Palmtop computers were created. With this help, it can also be used in remote areas where no electricity facilities are available.
It is mostly used by higher authorities, social workers, researchers who work in such remote rural area, they use it more. Where you need a table for the desktop, on the laptop of your laptop, in the palmtop you can use it in your palm.
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