What Is Operating System | Types Of Operating System – Digital Namanji


Operating System is mainly a source of Information. Know in Details What is Multimedia, its Functions & Types. Also Check What is the Use of Operating System in various fields. Check this Article to check every detail about Advantages and Disadvantages of Time-Sharing Operating System and its various uses. Operating System are of various types such as Batch, Time-Sharing, Distributed, Network & Real Type Operating System. So, check this article till the last and get every detail related to Operating System.

What Is Operating System – Introduction 

Operating System is software that works to manage the hardware. The Operating System works as an interface between the user and the hardware. The Operating system makes the work easy for the user by providing many features. It provides the environment for the user to execute the programs efficiently and conveniently. For a computer system to use different programs like browser, MS office, games at least one operating system is required. With the help of the Operating system, we can communicate with the computer without knowing any computer languages. Without an Operating System, the hardware is nothing. 

OS is concerned with the allocation of resources and services such as memory and devices. It correspondingly includes programmers to manage these resources, such as a scheduler, memory management module, I/O program, traffic controller, and a file system.

Functions of Operating System 

  • Memory Management – OS manages the memory of the computer, both the primary and the main memory. It keeps track of the primary memory and keeping track of the primary memory means it tracks which bytes of the memory are used by which user program 
  • Processor Management – The OS decides the order of the processes and the processing time each process takes. And this function of the OS is known as process scheduling. It keeps a track of the status of the processes going on in the processor. When more than one process is going on in the processor it is the work of the OS that will decide when and how all the program will get processed.
  • Device Management – In Device management, the OS keeps the track of all devices connected to the system. And keep records of all the devices connected. The OS decides which process gets access to a certain device and for how much duration. Deallocation of the devices when they are no longer required.
  • File Management – OS manages all the file-related activities like where to store the file in which directory for easy navigation and usage It keeps the record of information stored, the status of all files. 
  • Security – OS keeps the files, processes, memory protected. It uses password authentication to access these. Passwords protection protects user data. It protects unauthorized access to any program.

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Types of Operating System 

  1. Batch Operating System
  2. Time-Sharing Operating System
  3.  Distributed Operating System
  4. Network Operating System
  5. Real-Time Operating System

Batch Operating System

In this type of OS, the operator takes similar jobs with similar requirements and groups them into batches. Users of this OS don’t interact with the computer directly. The operator of this operating system sorts the job according to its requirement.

The drawback of the Batch Operating System

  • Setup Cost – It is costly sometimes
  • Debug – It is hard to debug issues in the batch operating system.
  • Operator – It requires a well-trained computer operator.
  • Job Failure – If there is any failure in any job then other jobs will have to wait.

Example of Batch Operating System –  Bank Statement, Payroll System, etc

Time-Sharing Operating System

Each task in the operating system is given time to execute so that it can work smoothly. Time-sharing in the OS is a method or approach that allows many people to use a particular computer system at the same time. The Time-Sharing OS is also a multitasking system. When Multiple jobs are executed by the CPU, the user gets a quick response to all the jobs because the time-sharing system divides each task according to the time. It reduces the response time.

Advantages of Time-Sharing OS

  • Duplication – There are very few chances of duplication of software.
  • Quick Response – It provides a quick response 
  • Performance – Increase performance of the system
  • CPU idle time – Idle time of CPU can be reduced.

Disadvantages of Time-Sharing OS 

  • Reliability – It has a reliability problem
  • Security – It provides less security and data integrity of user’s programs.

Example of Time-Sharing OS – Unix, Multics, etc.

Distributed Operating System

In a distributed operating system, the system uses more than one processor to process the program of the multiple real-time applications and of multiple users. All the processors communicate with each other, the size and the function may vary in a distributed system. It is also referred to as the loosely coupled system. These types of operating systems are nowadays widely accepted and are in great use in computer technology

Advantages of Distributed OS

  • Resources Sharing – In distributed systems with the use of resources sharing one user can use the resources of another.
  • Load-Reduced – The load of the host is reduced in this operating system
  • Delay in Processing – Delay in data processing is reduced
  • Better service – it is highly fast and durable that’s why it gives the best service to the customer.

Disadvantages of Distributed OS 

  • Network Failure – Main network failure will affect the whole communication.
  • Language – To set up the Distributed OS the language is not well defined yet.

Example of Distributed OS – LOCUS, MICROS, etc. 

Network Operating System

Network Operating System is based on a network i.e it runs on the server. It provides the capability to manage data, users, and groups.

It allows shared access to printers, files, applications, and security over a network. In this type of operating system, the users are aware of the basic configuration of the other users.

Advantages of Network OS

  • Stable Server – Highly Stable Server 
  • Security – Security problems are solved using server

Disadvantages of Network OS

  • Cost – Servers are costly as compared to other OS.
  • Maintenance – Regularly Maintenance and up-gradation is required

Example of Network OS – Microsoft Windows Server 2003, MS Windows Server 2008, UNIX, etc

Real-Time Operating System

In the Real-Time Operating system, the time interval to complete a task is very small. Real-Time means at that particular time. The time interval in the real-time operating system is very less than it controls the environment. The time interval between the process and the response is known as the response time. And the response time should be very less, the shortest possible delay is not accepted.

Advantage of Real-Time OS

  • Quick Response – The Response rate is very quick in this type of OS.
  • Task Shifting – In this type of OS the shifting from one task to another is very less
  • Error – It is error-free

Disadvantages of Real-Time OS

  • Algorithm – Very complex and difficult algorithm to write.
  • Limited Task – Limited task runs at the same time in this OS.

Examples of RealTime OS – Medical imaging system, air traffic system, military weapons system, etc.

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