What is Networking Models | TCP/IP network model – Digital Namanji


This article contains basic ideas about the networking model. The networking model consists of two models. OSI ( open system interconnection) And TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol or Internet Protocol). It gives you knowledge about basic concepts that come under the OSI and ISP/IP like a layered task, application layer, presentation layer, session layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer, and physical layer. To know more about it please check this article till the end.

 What is Networking Models

Networking is exchanging and transporting data between nodes over a medium. Networking involves data transportation, it comprises design, construction, use of the network, and apart from these it includes management, maintenance, network infrastructure, software, and some more activities.

The whole networking concept is divided into many layers. And each layer is equally important and is divided for particular tasks. The layers are independent of other layers. But the whole networking system depends on these layers. Data is sent in these layers and then these layers take input and send output depending on each other.

Layered Task 

In the layered architecture of networking, as we know that the whole network process is divided. They are divided into small tasks and each small task is then assigned to that particular layer. Each layer does specific tasks. The tasks can be initiated from the lowest level to the topmost level and vice versa. 

Open System Interconnection Model (OSI)

Application Layer 

It is related to the user’s device like a phone, computer, laptop, server, etc. The application layer provides the affiliate for the exchange of data between the program and users. It provides a communication interface and its protocols focus on processes to process communication across networks.

Functions of this layer – It assigns network services to the users. It gives services like user logs in, formatting massages, email transfer of files and naming network devices, etc. It is helpful in developing network-based applications. 

Presentation Layer 

Translation of characters from the host system’s original format to the format of the receiving system is secure by the Presentation Layer. Encryption and decryption features are also added to it. The Presentation Layer is used to handle data compression. 

Functions of this layer – The presentation layer is used to conceive data for the application layer. The data which is transmitted by the application layer is taken by the presentation Layer and arranged for imparting over the session layer. 

Session Layer 

The session layer helps with executing authentication, Authorization, synchronization, and dialog control. During browsing maintenance of sessions is enabled using session layers.

Functions of this layer – The session layer helps control the association between the computers. 

Transport Layer 

The transport layer is a restraint for end-to-end delivery between hosts. It provides services from the application layer and takes services from the network layer. 

Functions of this layer – This layer is designed to aim for that the data in which order they are sending must be receiving the same as it is. Information of data that is provided by the application layer is broken into smaller units called segments done by the Network layer.

Network Layer 

Uniquely addressing hosts and addressing assignments in a network comes under the Network layer. It’s responsible for packet routing. Packet routing means the shortest path available for the transmission of packets.

 Functions of this layer –  The devices which mainly work on the network layer are designed to center to routing like networks and addressing devices. It provides a better quality of service management and good security. 

Data Link Layer 

Link errors are examined at the Data layer. This layer helps read as well as writing data. This is made up of connecting two hosts directly by point to point or broadcasting type connection. 

Functions of this layer – It performs many functions like multi-access, addressing, error control, framing, etc. The data link layer helps encapsulate packets from the network layer into the frame and transfer it bit-by-bit on hardware.

Physical Layer 

The physical layer is the lowest layer of the model. It is responsible for the physical connection of the devices. It stores information in form of bits and transmits individual bits between nodes. 

Functions of this layer – The data rate is defined as how many bits are used to send the data per second by the sender maintained by this layer. Synchronization of bits is accomplished by this layer.

Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol(TCP/IP) Model 

Application Layer 

It is the topmost layer of the OSI as well as the TCP/IP layer model.  Application layer that is responsible for user interaction with the network. Some protocols help the layers to do so.

Protocol – SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), FTP( File Transfer Protocol), HTTP( Hypertext markup language),

SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol)

Transport Layer 

The transport layer as the name means to transport it helps in the transposition of data. This layer is responsible for the data flow between hosts. It is also a layer that is in the OSI model. This is a very important layer because it ensures data delivery between hosts. 

Protocol – TCP( Transmission Control Protocol), UDP(User Datagram Protocol)

Network Layer 

 It is also called the internet layer. This layer works on the internet protocol. It gives us facilities like host addressing and recognition. Also, the internet layer defines the routing. 

Protocol-  IP ( Internet Protocol )

Data Link Layer 

This layer is also known as the network access layer. It is the combination of the physical and the data link layer of the OSI model. It keeps a check on the network addressing and the protocols present in this layer permit the physical transmission of data.

Protocol – Ethernet 

Comparison between OSI model and TCP/IP Model

Here we will discuss some basic comparisons that we can see between the OSI model and TCP/IP model

  • The TCP/IP model is more reliable than the OSI model. 
  • TCP/IP follows a horizontal approach while OSI follows a Vertical approach.
  • The transport layer in TCP/IP does not guarantee delivery of packets while the OSI layer guarantees delivery of packets.
  • In TCP/IP model, the network layers provide connection-less services while the OSI layer provides both connection-less and connection-orientated services.


The above article is basically about the networking model through which our data is transferred from one host to another. There are many layers according to the models that are responsible for the whole networking concept. And the main role is of Protocol over these layers, every layer works on different protocols.

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