Network Topology

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This article contains ideas about network topology. It included the types, advantages, and disadvantages of network topology. Read the article till the end to know more about network topology.

What is Network Topology

Topology is an arrangement of a connected device with a network. And a network is connected to two or more devices to share resources. Like computers and printers.

Point to Point Topology 

Point to point topology, connections are in between two devices using a single cable. It includes two hosts such as a computer, router, switch, hub, etc. that are connected with a common link. Like we use a mouse with our PC, the mouse and the pc are connected point to point. 

Advantages of Point to Point Topology 

High Bandwidth than others because there are only two nodes. Connectivity is simple and easy. It provides low latency and is easy to maintain. 

Disadvantage of Point to Point Topology

The network depends upon a common link and if there is any link broken it can break the entire network.

Star Topology 

In Star topology, all the nodes are arranged in the manner that they are connected to a central hub or switch or central computer. About hub and switch, we got all the details here. And here the central computer is what we call a server and the devices(peripheral devices) that we use or access are the clients. Here we use some types of cables for the connection i.e coaxial cable or RJ-45. Hubs used in it are both passive or active. Passive hubs are not intelligent hubs as the active hubs can be intelligent and use repeaters.

Advantages of Star Topology 

High-Speed Data is supported in the star topology. Speed of approx 100 Mbps. The most popular star topology network is Ethernet 100BaseT. Star Topology has a feature of expanding as new stations and adding an open port on the hub. It is cost-effective and troubleshooting is also more efficient than other topologies like bus topology. 

Disadvantages of Star Topology

Star Topology is based on the central hub and if there is any failure in the central hub, the whole connected nodes will not be able to communicate with each other. 

Bus Topology

In a bus topology, a single cable known as a backbone cable is used to connect several stations uniformly. If any single station wants to send a message over the network, it is distributed over all stations connected to the backbone cable whether it is addressed. Bus topology is a simpler topology than the other. In bus topology transmission of data is unidirectional. 

CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) is a common access method of bus topology. Carrier Sense Multiple Access collision detections and Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision avoidances are the two methods that are commonly used when two nodes send messages simultaneously.

Advantages of bus topology- 

Its installation cost is low and has moderate data speed. It’s a familiar technology with limited failure.

Disadvantages of bus technology- 

Specialized test equipment is required to check its cable fault, and here if any fault is found, all station communication will be disrupted. The signal transmission can’t be bidirectional, if it happens then the signals of both the nodes are colloid with each other. Here If any new device is added then it slows down the network. 

Ring Topology 

A ring topology is a topology in which computers are connected with other computers in the form of a ring. Each computer transmits the message to the next computer that is attached to that computer in sequence and takes the messages from the previous computer. In-ring topology, each node is connected end to end with another node. The flow of Data follows the unidirectional and clockwise rotation. 

Advantages of ring topology

Without disrupting network speed, we can remove the faulty devices from the network. Its product availability is good because it has been monitored. It has many software and hardware tools for network operations. The cost of installation is very low. Its communication system is not dependent on a single host computer so it is very reliable.

Disadvantages of ring topology

As above we get that each node is connected end to end with another node so a fault in any one station leads to the breakdown of the overall network. For detecting faults in any one cable it requires specialized test equipment. So there can be found difficulty in troubleshooting. Here slow down of the network occurs when new devices are added to the network. 

Mesh Topology

In a mesh topology, each computer follows multiple paths to connect with another computer, or in other words, we can say that each computer is interconnected with another computer with multiple connections. There is no central computer, a hub found that acts as a central point of communication. It is of two types –

  • Full mesh topology 
  • Partial mesh topology

In a full mesh topology, all stations are connected to each computer that is available in the network. 

In the partial mesh, topology computers are connected with computers of all computers present in the network. 

Tree Topology 

It is a type of star topology and bus topology that means it combines the characteristics of both. It follows a hierarchical way of representation. The topmost node of the tree topology e is the root node.

Advantages of Tree topology

It is easily expandable and manageable. The whole network is separated into segments and that’s the reason it is easily maintained and managed. Any breakdown or failure will not affect the whole network.

Disadvantages of Tree topology

It is sometimes difficult to troubleshoot in the tree topology. It requires a high cost.

Hybrid Topology

Hybrid topology is the combination of two or more two different topologies. Combined Two same topologies can’t form a hybrid topology. A combination of bus topology, ring topology, star topology, or ring topology is an example of hybrid topology.

Advantages of hybrid topology

It is a reliable, flexible, scalable, and effective topology. The function of the network is not disrupted when any fault occurs in any part of the network of this topology. We can add more networking devices so it does not affect the functionality of the network.

Disadvantages of the hybrid topology

It is very difficult to design the architecture of hybrid topology and costly also because it contains many topologies. 

Conclusion

Network topology is used to define the communication between the network. It defines the basic design that comes under the communication system like arrangement of nodes, links, and combination of hybrid. There are many topology types to arrange the networks.

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