This article is on the domain name system or DNS. This article describes the whole system or process of making a domain name for any organization or authority. Every organization or any business company has its unique domain name, which helps its customers to reach them. A domain name system is a mechanism for providing a unique domain name for every IP address.
We cannot remember the IP address of every organization, that is very difficult. Domain names are simple and easy to remember, so in this article, I have written all about the domain name system. In this article, there is an introduction of the domain system, all overviews of it, in domain name system, domain name servers, and domain name space are present, so they are also well explained in this article.
Components of domain name systems are described below, advantages of DNS, drawbacks or we can say disadvantages of domain name systems are also explained below. In the end, there is a short conclusion about the domain name system. Reading this article will be helpful to you for understanding the domain name system.
What is DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM
A domain name system is a mechanism that provides an address in alphabetical order of any IP address that helps a user to reach a vendor digitally with the help of using their domain name. The domain name is nothing but just like a phone number dictionary.
Let’s understand it by an example if we want to call our friend or any person, and we don’t remember its mobile number but we remember that we had save that number in our mobile number dictionary or phonebook with a unique name of that person, so now we can easily find that number and call him.
Domain names are also like a unique address for each IP address, it is difficult to remember large and many IP addresses, so the domain name system provides us an easy name that is easy to remember. When we write a domain name into a browser the server finds the IP address of the domain name and accesses the webserver of that particular IP address.
An example of the domain name is www.digitalnamanji.com, in this www is the hostname, the example is just a name for domain name creation and .com is a domain.
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A domain name server is an open and worldwide database name server, DNS has authoritative name servers that servers domain name root zone levels, they are called root servers. The number of root servers is 13. The root zone is the list of domain names. In the list of top domain names, there are three types of domains and in that zone, some top of the domain names are described below.
- Generic domain: In this generic domain there are some top domain names are- .edu, .net, .org, .mil etc.
- Country domain: every country may have their own domain also, example of some top country domains are- .uk, .in., .ca, .cn, etc.
- Inverse domain: in this type of domain, if we know IP and we are mapping it with the domain, this is a way of finding domain and it is called inverse domain.
Domain name servers:
Domain name servers are used to translate all domain names into IP addresses for accessing over the internet. Domain name server stores many domain names. All domain names are stored in domain name servers and when a client or a user sends a request to the server it accepts the request of the user as a domain name then converts that domain into their IP address then the computer system starts accessing the request and gives response to the user. Domain name server performs many operations at a given time, it works very fast.
A namespace is used to define the structure of the domain name. There are two ways of defining the structure of a domain name. one is flat and another is hierarchical. Now the flat method is almost not in use, most of the time a hierarchical method is used. Domain namespace is provided by TCP/IP transmission control protocol/ internet protocol. Domain namespace is used to provide a domain name for the user. It has a hierarchy of domain names as priority is for TLD top-level domains, they are regional domains, then second-level domains, these are local after these subdomains come in the hierarchy, including these all domains it gives the resultant final domain name.
There are some main components of the domain name system. These components are used for creating domain names, storing them in a database, and when a client requests a domain name then convert them into their IP address and give a response to the client.
- Domains– domains are the main part of the domain name system, with help of domain users are allowed to find something on the internet. Domains are a group of words stored in a server, which is a translation of an IP address of any web page.
- Distributed database– this database is also used to store data and information. Domain name system has a very large database of domain names.
- Name servers– As described above, name servers are used to provide complete domain names for the websites.
- Clients– client or we can say user, this is a person who requests on the server for searching with a domain name.
- Resolver– resolver solves the problem of the client, it accepts the request and provides the solution from the server, and responds to the client according to its request.
IPV4 and IPV6 with DNS:
IPV4 and IPV6 stand for internet service provider version 4 and version 6. DNS can run over both types of IP addresses. Domain name system used to translate domain names into IP addresses. IPV4 addresses are separated with commas, like 22.214.171.124, and IPV6 addresses are written with colons, like 45:3:6::6:9.
Advantages of DNS:
There are some advantages of DNS, a domain name system.
- Mapping– Domain name system is used to map IP addresses with domain names, if anytime IP gets changed then, we no need to worry about that.
- Easy to remember– This is also a very essential importance of DNS, for using the domain, we need to remember them, and they are very easy, anyone can remember them, they are in simple English languages.
- Security enhancement– Domain name plays an important role in security. A domain name is the first thing that gets hacked first but it will protect your device from hacking, and enhancement word is used in this which defines that DNS enhances security.
- User friendly– DNS is a user-friendly user who can efficiently use it. Any user can use domain names that are mapped with a particular IP address, then access the internet.
- Quick and efficient– DNS service is very fast and very efficient for every user. DNS performs operations very quickly. It takes very few seconds for performing operations, like mapping, searching, and accessing, etc.
Drawbacks of DNS:
DNS works on the internet and it has a very large workspace, so being a very wide area of work, sometimes it may have some problems and drawbacks. There are some disadvantages of domain names system are explained below-
- Client information– A client who started resolve domain names with IP addresses, and that client has provided many pieces of information, normally this information does not get carried out, but due to this DNS servers, the server-side person would be able to know the client information about a client, and it may cause of hacking.
- Server breakdown– it is a huge drawback of domain name servers. When a server breaks down, then the connection with the host and local area network gets disconnected. Although there is a backup of the root server, sometimes it doesn’t allow the client to reach them.
- Troubleshooting– In DNS sometimes there is troubleshooting required, it may request to check network connectivity, if it couldn’t find an IP address for mapping then it suggests pinging the IP address of the host you are trying to get. These are some drawbacks of DNS servers, and also it has many other types of problems while accessing the internet like, check DNS suffix, DHCP server is not working properly, and many more.
This was the article on the domain name system(DNS). It is a mapping system of domain names and IP addresses. The domain name system provides a domain name to an IP address, which is used to connect to the internet. Domain name system works upon the application layer of the OSI model.
The application layer is the nearest layer to the user and DNS works on this layer, near the user. This all is the summary or conclusion of this article, A Domain Name System. In the above article, there is very much information about the domain name system, its components, its features, all components which are used in the domain name system are well described in the above article.
DNS also has some drawbacks, which are also explained in the above. I hope reading this article was very helpful to you in gaining knowledge about the domain name system(DNS).