This article is on computer system architecture. The computer system architecture consists of rules and methods which describe the implementation, functionality, and structure of the computer system. The modern computer system architecture is also called von Neumann architecture.

This article contains the introduction of it, all description of computer system architecture that how this architecture work or execute the processes, all components which are used in this architecture are described in this article, also many advantages of computer system architecture, and at the end of the article, the conclusion of computer system architecture. This article contains much important information about computer system architecture.


Computer system architecture describes the structure of a computer. Computer system architecture describes the functionality, working process, and implementation of a computer system. The computer system architecture is a design that defines the working logic, architecture, and set of instructions of the computer. With the help of computer system architecture, we can know about how a computer system performs the programs and complete the given processes by the user.

A computer system is a machine that is used to perform complicated tasks, so it is necessary to have some rules or instructions to solve those tasks hence computer system architecture is used to give those instructions and some components are in this architecture that helps the computer system to perform those operations. 

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Description of Computer system architecture:

The computer system architecture is also called Von Neumann architecture because it was published by John Von Neumann in 1945. Computer system architecture describes the functionality and working process of a computer system. The central processing unit (CPU), input devices, and output devices are the main three building block of this architecture. In this architecture, there are several rules for executing processes. The memory, where all data is stored in the computer system, is called the RAM.

The input gets into the computer with the help of input devices like keyboard, mouse, etc. The output gets the information out with the help of output devices like monitors, printers, etc. The central processing unit (CPU) includes an arithmetic unit, control unit, and storage unit.

Modern computers still follow Von Neumann’s architecture. All modern computers are based on the same basic design and this architecture. This architecture is simple and easy to reduce the size and capacity according to need. After this architecture, many other types of architectures are developed but von Neumann architectures are still used in computers.

It is an electronic path that the CPU uses to connect with input devices, output devices of the computer system. The control bus divide into three groups: the first one is the control bus, which manages the flow and address and information about data that how data will transmit through a computer system. The second is the address bus, where the data address is shown that at what location data should go for the particular operation.

The third is the data bus is the information that needs to be transferred. This all process of the system bus is like a transportation system of the computer. A central processing unit (CPU) manages the system bus. The control and working process of the computer system is connected with wires. When wires are too long the bus works slow.

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Components of Computer System Architecture:

 There are many components that are used in computer system architecture but, CPU and input/output devices are three important components of Computer system architecture. Components of Computer system architecture are as follows:

  • Input unit: input unit simply refers to input devices. Input devices are those which are used to give data or input to the computer system. It is a type of computer hardware apparatus which is used to supply data or information with control and data signal.

 Examples of some input devices: mouses, keyboards, scanners, joysticks, and digital cameras, etc.

  • Output unit: In a computer output unit is defined as the output device. These devices are used to give the result of the executed process. Output devices are used to give the output of the program. These devices are used to deliver information from the computer to external devices or clients or users.

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  Examples of some output devices: Printer, monitor, plotter, etc.

  • The central processing unit(CPU): In the block diagram of computer system architecture central processing unit holds an arithmetic unit, control unit, and memory unit inside. The control unit makes sure that all other parts are doing their job correctly or on time. The arithmetic unit is responsible for doing arithmetic operations like addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division. The memory unit is used to store data or information of all programs. The central processing unit manages all of the system buses and all steps or processes are working in a proper manner.

Advantages of architecture:

 Computer system architecture describes a path to the programs for completing the process. This architecture helps in many ways. The advantages of computer system architecture are given below.

  1. Speed: The architecture describes a path to the process which helps in the fast execution of the program. In this way, computer system architecture helps in increasing the speed of the program execution.
  2. The right way: This architecture shows the way for the execution of the program so the program executes step by step on their appropriate location. It reduces data loss. Any process has its rules for proceeding, so the process goes on its right way.
  3. Data security: It also benefits for the purpose of data security and no loss of data.
  4. Accuracy: This architecture has rules and methods, so the process executes according to the method and reaches the perfect location with accuracy.
  5. Helps in multitasking: sometimes a computer needs to do many tasks, then this architecture of a computer is very helpful. It completes all processes one by one with the help of rules.

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At the end of the article here is the conclusion of computer system architecture. This article contains much information about what computer system architecture is, who developed it. This article includes an introduction, description of computer system architecture, components used in computer system architecture, and advantages of architecture.

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