What is biometrics? – SearchSecurity – Digital Namanji


The subject of this article is Biometrics. In this article, there is a full explanation of biometrics technology. Topics of this article are the introduction of biometrics, biometrics technology description and how it works, types of biometrics, why biometrics is used, advantages and also disadvantages of biometrics and at the end of the article, it contains the conclusion of biometrics. So, this article contains full information about biometrics. Want to know about biometric technology, read this article, it will give you biometrics information.

What is biometrics

Biometrics is the technology that is used for the measurement and identification of human’s unique physical behavior and measurements. It is used for the unique identification of each person. Biometric technology uses sensors to detect physiological behavior. Every person has their unique fingerprints, unique voice, Iris, and many other physical parts, so biometric identify every person with the help of their unique physiological measurements. Now, biometrics is used in every field, in schools, colleges, offices, and everywhere according to their requirement or purpose of use. Biometrics can detect everyone individually. This technology is very good for safety reasons, no one can affect this technology easily.


Biometrics is used to recognize physical measurements or physical characteristics. There are several types of biometrics- fingerprinting mapping, face recognition, retina scans, and any other type of physical recognition. In our country India, it is necessary to have an identity proof of citizenship of our country which is an Adharcard, which defines the uniqueness of every person. So, the process of making Adharcards is also on biometrics technology. Database of Adharcard of India is the second biggest database in the world. Biometrics technology used high technology scanners that scan the fingerprint of human beings and recognize the iris of the eyes.


Biometrics has many ways to recognize people with the help of their fingerprints, their voice, iris recognition, etc. The working of biometrics is described below:

The first step is called fingerprint template formation or called minutiae extraction. When we put our finger on it, it clicks the picture of our finger lines but this was the process of traditional biometrics now in modern time devices reflects a led light where fingers were placed and it captures a 3-D image of the fingerprint which is hard to break the lock or breach security. Once it gets the perfect fingerprint according to the 3-D picture which it had taken then it moves the process forward. Biometric technology used sensors, which is a transducer that changes a biometric treat of a person into an electrical signal.


 There are several types of biometrics.

  • Fingerprint Recognition: To capture the fingerprints, machines use transducers, capacitors, CMOS, which scans the fingerprint of humans and it converts it into binary digits(0,1). Now, banks, schools, offices, colleges, and many other authorities use fingerprint recognition devices for attendance, privacy passwords. Many smartphones also have this feature to unlock the phone.
  • Face recognition: it is also a biometric computer application that identifies a digital image of humans. This machine recognizes the nodal points of a human face, nodal points are endpoints used to measure variables like length and width of the nose, cheekbone shapes, eye socket depth of a person’s face.
  • Iris recognition: it is a type of biometric method used to recognize the iris of humans. It identifies the people based on their ring –shape of their eye, the color of the eye, a pattern of iris of the person’s eye.
  • Voice recognition: this technology is used to recognize the voice of humans. for detecting the voice of a person the main important properties used are nasal tone, the fundamental frequency of the voice, inflection, cadence. These properties help to recognize the unique voice of each person.
  • Signature recognition: This technology is used to recognize the unique signature of every person. This biometric technology measure the physical activity of signing like how much pressure is applied, stroke order, and speed of the person. There are two different ways to recognize a signature. Static- in this mode person write their signature on paper, and it digitizes with a scanner or an optical camera. Dynamic- in this mode person write their signature on a tablet which is digitized and obtains the signature in real-time.


 There are some important advantages of biometrics-

  • Security: biometrics increased the level of assurance of security. Biometrics are used for the protection of devices for unlocking. Fingerprint recognition, face recognition, iris detection, and others are used for security.
  • Non-transferable: you can’t transfer a physical measurement like a fingerprint to anyone. You can’t share physical biometric digitally, the only way to utilize biometric authentication systems is with the physical application.
  • Easy and quick: The internal process of biometric is technical and may be difficult to understand but from a user’s point of view it is very easy and quick. The user has to put the only finger in finger recognition, put eyes in front of iris detection machine and face in front of face recognition machine.


 Biometrics technology has many advantages but also it has some disadvantages too. The advantages of biometrics are given below:

  • Physical measurements are unchangeable: Normal pattern code and number password can changeable but if we set our physical measurements that can never be changed. If we want to reset our password it can not happen.
  • Cost: Biometrics systems are very costly. They have modern technology in the system which increases the cost of the system.
  • Unhygienic: sometimes biometric systems are unhygienic. One person puts their hands on the scanning area, there may be germs or dust on their hand and when another person will put their hand then it will be unhygienic, which is harmful to health.
  • Scanning difficulty and delay: sometimes there may be difficulty in scanning the fingerprint or recognizing the other physical behavior.


 Here is the conclusion of biometrics technology, in this article, there is an introduction of biometrics, how the biometric system works, a full description of biometric technology, types of biometric technology, advantages and disadvantages of biometric technology. Biometrics are only authenticated by humans. It can not be authenticated by a computer that is based on Ip address and public key. Biometric characteristics that are used in authentication systems are unique for each person.

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